Whiplash associated disorders
Whiplash associated disorders / WAD / acceleration trauma

A whiplash exerts sudden strong forces on the neck. The best known example is the whiplash that occurs in a rear-end collision. A car is hit from the rear, causing the occupant's head to move backward and forward in a short space of time.

neck whiplash pain

Despite there not always being a demonstrable injury to the neck following a whiplash trauma, patients may continue to experience symptoms for weeks or even years after the accident.

Description of condition

A whiplash trauma does not always involve injury to the muscles.

It is suspected that a whiplash causes damage to various structures as a result of compression (squashing) and traction (pulling) of the neck. In the case of a severe injury involving broken neck vertebrae, this may show up clearly in an X-ray. In many other cases there are no obvious fractures, but the patient experiences ongoing symptoms.

Structures that could become damaged as a result of a whiplash include muscles, the spinal cord, joint capsules or ligaments such as the longitudinal ligament or the nuchal ligament, an inter-vertebral disc, the spinous process of a neck vertebra, an efferent nerve or the vertebral body.

Cause and history

A whiplash injury is common following (car) accidents, for example when the car is hit from behind or from the side. This causes the head to swing up and down rapidly. Other activities and accidents can also cause a whiplash injury. Things such as diving, skidding, falling down steps, an object falling on your head, bungee jumping, heading a ball, skiing, go-karting, horse riding, a hard landing in an airplane, bumper cars or external forces.

Signs & symptoms

There are many signs and symptoms that can occur following a whiplash injury. Sometimes these will occur immediately after the injury, but in other cases they will only occur days, weeks or even months later. Common symptoms include:

  • Neck pain.
  • Decreased mobility of the neck.
  • Headache.
  • Hypersensitivity to light (photophobia).
  • Pain in the shoulder and arm.
  • Dizziness.
  • Concentration problems.
  • Fatigue.
  • Anxiety.
  • Decreased visual acuity.
  • Depression, increased irritation or stress.
  • Pain in the back.
  • Insomnia.
  • Tingling, pins and needles or a feeling of numbness in the hand.
  • Weepy eyes.
  • Loss of libido.


The way in which the symptoms develop is an important element when making the diagnosis. A forceful movement of the head and neck must have taken place. The various structures of the neck can be checked in a physical examination. An X-ray can rule out possible fractures (broken bones).

Whiplash associated disorders are categorized by degree of severity. With each degree of severity, the patient may experience symptoms such as numbness, headache, loss of memory, dizziness, tinnitus (ringing in the ear), swallowing problems and pain in the jaw joint.

Grade 0
No symptoms, no subjective or objective abnormalities.
Grade 1
Pain, stiffness and sensitivity of the neck, but no objective abnormalities.
Grade 2
Neck symptoms and other symptoms affecting the skeletal structure (such as decreased mobility and pressure pain).
Grade 3
Neck symptoms and neurological loss of function (such as decreased tendon reflexes, decreased muscle strength and disorders in sensory perception).
Grade 4
Neck symptoms and fractures (breaks) or dislocations.


An important part of the treatment consists of explaining his/her own symptoms to the patient. They must learn to cope with the symptoms independently and know how to influence them. The patient must know how to act in the event of a relapse or deterioration of the symptoms.

The physiotherapy treatment depends on how long the patient has already had the symptoms. For example, treatment in the first 4 days is aimed at reducing the pain. From 4 days to 3 weeks the treatment focuses on tackling the functioning of the neck and the activities during which the symptoms occur.

After 3 to 6 weeks the load is gradually increased so that the patient can resume normal daily activities as far as possible. If no progress is made in the period from 6 weeks to 3 months, we refer to this as delayed recovery. The chances of a complete recovery decrease if symptoms persist for more than 3 months.

The treatment focuses on performing active exercises wherever possible. Once a severe injury has been ruled out, there is no point in focusing on the pain. This may severely delay the recovery.


Follow the specially compiled exercise programme with exercises for Whiplash associated disorders here.

You can check your symptoms using the online physiotherapy check or make an appointment with a physiotherapy practice in your locality.

neck whiplash pain movement 1
neck whiplash pain movement 2
neck whiplash pain movement 3

Bekkering, G.E., Hendriks, H.J.M., Lanser, K., Oostendorp, R.A.B., Peeters, G.G.M., Verhagen, A.P. & Windt, D.A.W.M. van der (2001). KNGF-richtlijn. Whiplash. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Fysiotherapie. Nummer 3, 2001.
Bier, J.D., Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M., Staal, J.B., Pool, J., Tulder, M. van, Beekman, E., Meerhoff, G.M., Knoop, J. & Verhagen, A.P. (2016). KNGF-richtlijn. Nekpijn. Koninklijk Nederlands Genootschap voor Fysiotherapie. V-09/2016.
Verhaar, J.A.N. & Linden, A.J. van der (2005). Orthopedie. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.

neck whiplash pain
neck whiplash pain movement 1
neck whiplash pain movement 2
neck whiplash pain movement 3

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